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El Subjuntivo

 

 
 

Main clause in the Indicative                 Dependent clause in a form of the subjunctive

Wish

Emotion

Impersonal  +  Que  + Subjuntivo

Request

Doubt

Ojalá

 

Non-Existent- no hay nadie que sepa la verdad.

Negation- negar,no hay nada, no hay ningún, ninguna+ noun, aunque

Main Clause:

Presente

Presente Perfecto  (Pretérito Perfecto )                        Presente Subjuntivo

Futuro                                  +     que   +                      Presente Perfecto del Subjuntivo   

Futuro Perfecto

Imperativo

Main Clause:

Pretérito

Imperfecto                                                                Imperfecto Subjuntivo

Pluscuamperfecto                +     que     +                Pluscuamperfecto del Subjuntivo

Condicional

Condicional Perfecto

Presente Subjuntivo:

-ar              e

-er              a

-ir               a

-car           que

-gar           gue

-zar            ce

-ger            ja

-gir             ja

-guir          ga

-guar         güe

Vocal + -cer           zca

Consonante + -cer          za  

      

 IRREGULAR:

Dar      dé

Ser       sea

Estar    esté

Saber   sepa

Haber   haya

Ir          vaya

Don't forget about GO Verbs:

Hacer   haga

Venir    venga

Tener   tenga

Oír       oiga

Salir     salga

Decir    diga

Traer    traiga

Diferentes:

Ver                       vea

Construir            construya

Concluir             concluya

AR and ER Stem -Changers-change as usual.

IR Stem -Changers- change as usual except in the NOSOTROS FORM and VOSOTROS FORM.

0>u      durmamos-duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman

E>i       sintamos-sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan

 

After the verbs  DEJAR, HACER, MANDAR, PERMITIR, and PROHIBIR the infinitve or the subjuntive may be used.

 Presente Perfecto Subjuntivo (Pretérito Perfecto )  -a form of haber + past participle ( remember irregular participles)

 I have written, have eaten etc..

 I hope that you have taken many pictures.-hayas sacado

 

Haya hablado               Hayamos hablado

Hayas hablado              Hayáis hablado

Haya hablado               Hayan hablado

 

IMPERFECT SUBJUNTIVO:

 

http://www.iniy.com/spanishimpersub.htm

 Imperfecto Subjuntivo:  Verb in the past tense

 Ending comes from 3rd person plural of the Pretérito

 

-a               -amos      áramos or éramos-(vowel before r has an accent on nosotros)

-as

-a               -an

quisiera                           quisiéramos

tuviera

pudiera

dijera

 

Reasons to use the Imperfect Subjuntive:

1. Polite requests-deber, querer, poder.

2. After-como si

3. Sí clause- when it is contrary to fact.

4. Certain conjuntions- adverbial

5. When WEIRDO is in the Imperfect, Preterite, Conditional,or Pluperfect.

 If Frida were alive today, she would be more than 100 years old.- estuviera

María was speaking about the painting as though she were an art critic.-fuera

 

Pluscumperfecto del Subjuntivo:

 

hubiera hablado             hubiéramos hablado

hubieras hablado

hubiera hablado             hubieran hablado

Verb                                                                           Verb

Present Indicative                                 Present Subjunctive  or  Present Perfect Subjunctive

Future  Indicative                                  Present Subjunctive  or  Present Perfect Subjunctive

Present Perfect Ind.                              Present Subjunctive  or  Present Perfect Subjunctive

Command                                            Present Subjunctive  or  Present Perfect Subjunctive

 Imperfect Indicative                              Imperfect Subjunctive or Pluperfect Subjunctive

Preterite Indicative                                Imperfect Subjunctive or Pluperfect Subjunctive

Pluperfect Ind.                                      Imperfect Subjunctive or Pluperfect Subjunctive

Conditional                                           Imperfect Subjunctive or Pluperfect Subjunctive

Si Clauses

 Si    Present Indicative                                  Future Indicative

 Si     Imperfect Subjunctive                               Conditional

Si     Pluperfect Subjunctive                            Conditional Perfect

For the following words:

The verb in the first clause is present subjunctive

and the verb in the second clause is future tense.

 

The verb in the first clause is past tense ind.

and the verb of the second clause is past tense ind.

The verb in the first clause is in the pluperfect subjunctive

and the verb of the second clause is in the conditional perfect.

THE CLAUSES MAY BE REVERSED!

Aunque

Así que

Cuando

De manera que                                   Indicative or Subjunctive

De modo que

Después de que                                 

En cuanto

Hasta que

Luego que

Mientras

Tan pronto como

Misc:

Misc:

Antes de que                

A fin de que

A menos que                                        Subjunctive

En caso que

Con tal que

Para que

Sin que

Dondequiera

Cualquiera                                            Subjunctive

Por + adv. adj. + que